The Extended Essay is a 3000 - 4000 word research paper that is required for all full Diploma Candidates. It is completed between April of the junior year and December of the senior year.
The EE is an in-depth investigation into a specific research question chosen by the student. It is intended to promote high-level research and writing skills, intellectual discovery and creativity. Students may choose their own topic and research question from a wide variety of possible subjects: English, history, math, science, foreign language, art, theater, psychology, political science, human rights or world studies.
The EE is scored externally by IB graders. It is worth up to three points to the total score for the IB diploma (on the 45 point scale). Completing the EE with a passing score is required to earn an IB Diploma.
When do I start?
Juniors who are IB diploma candidates will meet with Mr. Savage during April of their junior year to go over the requirements for the Extended Essay, choose subjects, and be assigned advisors.
Just a few basics: Beginning your Extended Essay
An Extended Essay has the following traits:
- It done independently
- The subject and topic are selected by the student
- It has a focused research question
- It utlizes in depth, academic research
- It uses primary sources
- It is usually between 3500 and 4000 words
Your Extended Essay must fit the guidelines for one of the IB subjects listed below. Keep in mind:
- You should only select a subject that you have studied
- You should select a subject for which you have an interest
- You should select a subject that will allow you to showcase your ability as a researcher and as a writer
- Subject options: English (literature), history, math, science, foreign language (Spanish or French), art, theater, psychology, political science, human rights or world studies.
- See the handout from Mr. Savage for a description of each subject and sample research questions.
Extended Essay Basics
The Components of the Extended Essay:
The Introduction should include:
- An indication of why the topic chosen is significant and worthy of investigation
- An indication of why you chose this particular topic
- Some background information, placing the topic in appropriate context
- A clearly and precisely stated research question
- A clear concluding statement of the thesis and argument, i.e. the response to the research question that will subsequently be developed in the body of the essay.
Investigation and Reasoned Argument
The essential feature of the major section, or body, of the essay is the systematic development of a reasoned argument in relation to the research question, utilizing appropriate sources. Your argument must show in-depth analysis.
The structure and the approach to this section will be shaped by the conventions of the particular subject in which the essay is undertaken. Some subjects may require sub-headings for major sections within the main body. For example, scientific investigations will usually have separate sections for method and results. In some other subjects, however, sub-headings should be avoided because they disrupt the flow and unity of an essay.
Should be clearly stated, relevant to the research question being investigated, substantiated by the evidence given, and indicate issues, unresolved questions and new questions that have emerged from the research.
Must include formal elements: title page, table of contents, page numbers, illustrative material (when appropriate), quotations, documentation (including references, in-text citations, and list of works cited) and appendices (when appropriate).
Should state clearly the research question investigated, how the investigation was undertaken and the conclusions of the extended essay.
Formal Presentation Information:
The extended essay should be written in a clear, correct and formal academic style, appropriate to the subject from which the topic is drawn. It must be typed.
The length of the extended essay:
The upper limit is 4,000 words for all extended essays. This upper limit includes the introduction, the body, the conclusion and any quotations, but does not include:
· the abstract
· the contents page
· maps, charts, diagrams, annotated illustrations and tables
· equations, formulas and calculations
· citations/references (whether parenthetical or numbered)
· footnotes or endnotes
· the bibliography
Essays containing more than 4,000 words are subject to penalties and examiners are not required to read material in excess of the word limit.
The title should provide a clear indication of the focus of the essay. It should be precise and not necessarily phrased in the form of a question.
An abstract not exceeding 300 words must be included with the essay submitted. It does not serve as an introduction, but presents an overview of the extended essay, and should, therefore, be written last.
The minimum requirements for the abstract are for it to state clearly:
· the research question being investigated
· the scope of the investigation
· the conclusion(s) of the extended essay.
The abstract should be typed, and placed immediately after the title page.
A contents page must be provided at the beginning of the extended essay and all pages should be numbered. An index is not required.
Presentation and overall neatness are important, and it is essential that illustrative material, if included, is well set out and used effectively. Graphs, diagrams, tables and maps are effective only if they are clearly labeled and can be interpreted with ease.
The direct or indirect use of the words of another person, written, oral, or electronic, must be acknowledged appropriately as must visual material in the essay, derived from another source. Not to do so is plagiarism. The list of works cited should include only those works such as books and journals that have been consulted by the candidate. Each work consulted, regardless of whether or not it has already been cited as a reference, must be listed in the list of works cited. The list of works cited should specify: author(s), title, date and place of publication, and the name of publisher, following a standard citation style.
Appendices, footnotes and endnotes are not an essential section of the extended essay and examiners are not required to read them, so care should be taken to include all information of direct relevance to the analysis and argument in the main body of the essay.
Recommended: things to do
Examiners’ reports frequently emphasize the following positive steps.
Before starting work on the extended essay, students should:
· read the assessment criteria
· read previous essays to identify strengths and possible pitfalls
· spend time working out the research question (imagine the finished essay)
· work out a structure for the essay.
During the research process, and while writing the essay, students should:
· start work early and stick to deadlines
· maintain a good working relationship with their supervisor
· construct an argument that relates to the research question
· use the library and consult librarians for advice
· record sources as they go along (rather than trying to reconstruct a list at the end)
· choose a new topic and a research question that can be answered if there is a problem with the original topic
· use the appropriate language for the subject
· let their interest and enthusiasm show.
After completing the essay, students should:
· write the abstract
· check and proofread the final version carefully.
Recommended: things to avoid
Examiners’ reports also mention these things to be avoided at all costs.
Students should not work with a research question that is too broad or too vague, too narrow, too difficult or inappropriate. A good research question is one that asks something worth asking and that is answerable within 40 hours/4,000 words. It should be clear what would count as evidence in relation to the question, and it must be possible to acquire such evidence in the course of the investigation. If a student does not know what evidence is needed, or cannot collect such evidence, it will not be possible to answer the research question.
In addition, students should not:
· forget to analyze the research question
· ignore the assessment criteria
· collect material that is irrelevant to the research question
· use the Internet uncritically
· merely describe or report (evidence must be used to support the argument)
· repeat the introduction in the conclusion
· cite sources that are not used.